|Certification of buildings in the Russian Federation: a review of the community "Energy efficiency and energy saving"|
In 2009, the Federal Law on energy saving and energy efficiency of 23.11.2009 N261-FZ approved requirements for energy efficiency, a list of objects of energy audit, purposes and timing of energy audit of buildings, institutions and industrial enterprises.
Energy audit of buildings and facilities
Energy audit of buildings and facilities carried out to determine energy efficiency class of the building and conformity assessment requirements of energy efficiency programs. "Law on Energy Saving" provides for the following types of energy audit of buildings:
- buildings and industrial facilities;
- apartment buildings;
- residential and public buildings.
The main objectives of the energy audit are:
-obtain objective data on the volume of energy resources;
-the definition of energy efficiency indicators;
-definition of energy saving and energy efficiency potential;
-development of a list of typical, public measures on energy saving and energy efficiency and their cost estimate;
-the formation of objects energy passport
Mandatory and voluntary energy audits
These audits are conducted to introduce energy saving technologies into life, thereby improving energy efficiency and reduce infrastructure costs. "Law on Energy Saving" establishes a mandatory energy audits of buildings and facilities of authorities and fuel and energy enterprises and organizations engaged in regulated activities in the period up to 31.12.2012 followed by periodic energy audit at least once every five years. For non-compliance of the requirements established in the Law "On Energy Saving", provides a number of punitive measures included in the Code of Administrative Offences.
In addition, the "Law on Energy Saving" obliges the responsible persons (builder, building owner) to ensure compliance commissioned buildings , or repaired after a major overhaul buildings with energy efficiency standards and the requirements of their counter devices.
Monitoring of compliance with energy technical standards implemented by the body energy state construction supervision on the basis of project documentation. Body is not defined, the control is not performed. In other cases, energy inspection is voluntary. Energy audit does not guarantee the effect of the implementation of the proposed activities. Most of the managers of public institutions and homeowners in apartment buildings already aware of the high cost of energy saving measures and problems with payback activities , and that is not so easy to implement the recommended measures.
Preparation of technical reports and building energy passport.
According to the results of the energy audit (of organization or enterprise building) technical report should be prepared by the executor but building energy passport is not necessary. Order of the Russian Ministry of 19.04.2010 N182 «On approval of requirements to the energy passport, based on the results of mandatory energy audit" contains a form to fill out, as well as the list of information that must be included in energy passport:
- counters equipment of energy resources;
- the volume of consumed energy resources and its dynamics;
- energy efficiency class of the object;
- percentage of loss of energy resources;
- energy saving potential and evaluation of possible energy savings;
- list of standard energy saving and energy efficiency measures.
In addition, by agreement with the executor, in a technical report may be included development activities, different from standards, and plan their conduct with a detailed justification of the energy effectiveness of the proposed action.
The work of SRO energy auditors and their approaches to building energy audi
In accordance with the "Law on Energy Saving" activities for conducting energy audits is entitled to exercise only energy auditing organizations and individuals who are members of SRO in the field of energy audit.
SROs are formed on the basis of non-profit partnerships, energy auditing companies and / or individuals, provided they meet the following requirements:
- association as members of not less than twenty-five subjects of entrepreneurial activity;
-availability of approved documents: about admission to the SRO and the termination of membership, standards and rules for the energy audits, the list of disciplinary measures, the standards of opening information about the activities of the SRO and the activities of its members;
-presence of a compensation fund, formed by contributions of SRO members in the field of energy audit.
During energy audit analyzes the state of power supply systems, heating, water supply, technology park ,enterprise(the object), the evaluation of systems and tools (instruments) and compliance with requirements, identifying unreasonable losses, assessment of the system of rationing of energy consumption and energy use, verification of energy balances of the enterprise (the object), the calculation of specific energy consumption for manufactured products (or jobs), evaluate the viability of major energy-saving measures implemented by enterprise, the formation of the energy passport enterprise.
Practice and mechanisms of energy audit
On the background of the progressive increase in the number of declared tenders amount allocated by state and municipal funds increased not so much and did not increase sustainable.
Most of tenders fell on public procurement for energy audit. However, the share of services in this category in total number of orders has consistently declined (from 86% in July to 41% in September-October). The role of energy audit in the cost structure is not as consistently decreased, due to the fact that in September, were conducted procurement for urgent technological events to the beginning of the heating season.
Interest in the change of number and share of orders where by the results of surveys is provided the preparation of energy buildings passports. In the initial period of the energy audit campaign, energy passport as part of the order, was used only in 30% of tenders for energy audits. In August and especially in September, there was a significant increase in the proportion of surveys with the development of passports - up to 46%. In October, the attention to passports from customers weakened to 38% of the number of tenders, but remained higher than in mid-summer. Another feature of the dynamics orders for energy examination is apparent differences in the average prices of work, ending in the preparation of passports but not providing certification.
In July, the average price of both versions of the energy examination was practically on the same level and the national average was just over 4 million rubles per one order. The average price of the order for examination without the development of energy passport was almost 5% higher than the average price of the order with the development of energy passport. All subsequent period, the cost of one contract for examination with the development of energy passports consistently declined and the national average has decreased by almost 10 times by October.
For examinations that do not provide the development of a passport, a significant reduction in prices was only in August, and then it was in a narrow range. It is interesting that the price of the order without a passport by October exceeded the price of the order with the development of the final document of almost 2.4 times. Lower cost of public procurement reflects a more realistic for the market value ratios services, while in the segment of orders without a passport more processes presented an entirely different kind.
The big problem is that so far there are no guidelines for determining the cost of the audit. Price now is determined by the results of request for quotations, auctions, and in the case of cost of works up to 100 thousand rubles - by mutual agreement.
At the same time the energy audit market is constantly asserts dumping price proposal. Energy auditor proposed minimum price can be 20% - 25% of the declared
For more information about the formation of a market for energy examinations gives the distribution of contracts by region. Number of subjects of the Federation, of which were announced tenders for energy audits without mentioning energy passport development, from August to October increased from 48 to 70, that is almost 1.5 times. A number of regions where tenders are with the development of passports, for the same period increased from 34 to 39, that is only 15%.
Simplified system of examinations which did not require the development of passports, spread almost twice as wide and is an average of 2.5 times more expensive than services involving preparation of energy passport of inspected objects.
A group of ten regions in which registered the highest individual price of energy audits, heads-the Yamal-Nenetskiy Autonomous District where tenders on the energy audit start with price 15 times more than in the Krasnodar District and the the Tyumen district.
Table 1. The starting price of tender for energy audit in the regions
№ Region name Average price for energy audit
10. The Kemerovo Region 261 thousand rubles
11. The Mordovia Republic 256 thousand rubles
12. The Rostov Region 233 thousand rubles
13. The Kirov Region 225 thousand rubles
14. Saint Petersburg 216 thousand rubles
15. The Buratiya Republic 207 thousand rubles
16. The Lipetsk Region 200 thousand rubles
17. The Tambov Region 198 thousand rubles
18. The Ingushetia Republic 150 thousand rubles
19. The Saratov Region less than 100 thousand rubles
Obviously, in the energy service market not only the development of competition affects on the price level.