|Building certification schemes|
Energy certification is a complex of measures aimed at the determination of the actual consumption of thermal energy buildings and issuing certificates, confirms the class of building energy efficiency. In European Union countries needs of energy certification of buildings is primarily determined by the requirements of existing instruments , in particular the Directive on the energy performance of buildings (Directive on the Energy Performance of Buildings - EPBD), Article 7 of which establishes the criteria of the certificate of energy efficiency in buildings.
Pic 1. The rating of energy efficiency of buildings in the EU
In spite of the current Directive on energy characteristics of buildings, a common approach to energy certification in Europe Union is under development now and will be formed soon. However, now energy certification of buildings located on the territory of the European Union, perfomed based on energy efficiency rating of buildings (pic. 6), which is assigned to them depending on the amount of energy, expressed in kW • • h/m2 year. In accordance with a rating of the building may be issued a certificate of compliance with energy efficiency class, from A, while consuming less than or equal to 25 kW • • h/m2 year, to G, when consumed in excess of 450 kW • • h/m2 year.
One of the criteria of the certificate is that it must necessarily include the current normative values of the energy characteristics allow consumers to compare and evaluate the energy efficiency of operated building. In addition to that, the certificate should include recommendations for improving energy efficiency level , including the economic justification of these activities. Energy certificate for public buildings (administrative, social institutions and other service providers a large number of people) with a total useful floor area over 1000 m2, must be placed in an accessible place for everyone. To inform visitors about the recommended and actual values of the indoor air temperature in the room and, if possible, other climatic characteristics of the indoor climate is welcomed. This certificate determines the size the annual energy requirements needed to operate buildings, structures, namely: energy for heating, water heating, air conditioning and ventilation, lighting, etc. Energy demand of the building may change depends from destination and type of building, its heights, equipment engineering systems and populations. . Recently in Russia more and more attention is paid to construction of buildings, where are indicators of energy consumption below the existing. For this purpose the regulatory framework is developed and approved. One of the main requirements is mandatory ranking apartment buildings on the level of energy consumption, and bring to the attention of citizens class energy efficiency of these buildings. In Russia the energy efficiency class of an apartment house is determined on the basis of the Order of the Ministry of regional development of the Russian Federation from 08.042011 N161 «On approval of rules for determining classes of energy efficiency of apartment buildings and requirements pointer class energy efficiency apartment house, placed on the facade of the apartment building». In accordance with this document, apartment house can have energy efficiency class A from the highest to the lowest E (pic.2).
Pic. 2 classes of energy efficiency
Table 1. Energy efficiency classes of buildings
Class designation Name of energy efficiency class Magnitude of the deviation values of
specific heat consumption for heating,
hot water and ventilation of the
building from the rated
For new and reconstructed buildings
A the highest less than -45
B++ elevated from -36 to -45 inclusive
B+ from -26-to-35 inclusive
B high from -11 to -25 inclusive
C normal from +5 to -10 inclusive
For existing buildings
D low from +6 to +50 inclusive
E the lowest more than +51
Normalized value of a specific consumption of heat energy in the building is determinate according to building norms and rules from 23.02.2003 depending on the type of building, structure, facility, its functionality , as well as the climatic conditions in which it is operated. These building norms and rules are the part of challenge of energy efficiency in buildings. Along with creation of effective heat protection in accordance with other normative documents, measures are being taken for increasing energy efficiency of engineering equipment of buildings, reduction losses during its preparation and transportation as well as reduce flow of heat and electricity by automatic control and regulation of equipment and engineering system in whole. Currently the package of normative documents on energy efficiency and energy saving on buildings is developed in Russian Federation. This work can be carried out on the regional level of RF. For example the Construction Committee of Saint Petersburg was as an initiator of formation of regional guidance documents on energy efficiency in buildings. Normative documents on energy efficiency in buildings agreed with similar foreign standards, in particular with the Eurocodes. These rules, as well as standards for technical equipment, contain minimum requirements, and the construction of many buildings can be done on an economic basis with significantly higher rates of energy saving provided classification of buildings in energy efficiency.
A practical example
Annually in the Arkhangelsk Region was put into operation more than 250 thousand m2 of housing, in construction of which use modern energy-saving materials and technologies.
However, not all residents have this information, and often are not even aware of energy efficiency and the benefits of modern energy efficient buildings, so they have difficulty in comparing of real estate represented in market.
Certification is an incentive for developers for construction of energy efficiency buildings and increasing of energy efficiency level of existing buildings. Energy certificates inform sellers and consumers about costs of operation of building and estimated value of building. This is an important factor contributing to the attractiveness of real estate for buyers or lease for tenants.
Responsibility for authenticity of data on the basis of which the certificate is issued, shall be taken by a specialized organization, carrying out the examination, evaluation and issue of certificate.
Despite the relevance of implementation of mass energy certification of buildings and constructions , the Russian Government still doesn’t have a full base, in particular there are still no requirements for contents of certificates and procedure of its issues and as well as identification of classes of energy efficiency of municipal buildings.
In addition, the current organizational problem is not solved, which is to empower individuals to undertake activities in the field of energy certification and distribution between public authorities powers to regulate the activities of these individuals. In this connection there arises a need to develop new regulations, and existing corrections.