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Component 2 Print

Outcome 2: Capacity building and know-how


Specific barriers: While the current standard on the thermal protection of buildings (adopted in 2003 by the State Construction Committee) requires that all building design projects should estimate energy performance.  However, professional training and education in the area of building design and engineering do not integrate energy efficiency principles and incentives. Existing local experiences are replicated through fragmented initiatives with insufficient effectiveness.

Target groups:  All of the three participating oblasts have an established system of professional and vocational education for construction sector consisting of technical and vocational schools and state and private universities. For example, in the Vologda Oblast there are two universities covering a wide range of subjects in the construction sector (including Vologda State Technical University, or VSTU), 5 technical schools, 21 professional colleges and 10 commercial educational facilities.  Each of the three participating oblasts has students who study energy efficiency of buildings (design and construction, functioning, building service, heating engineering, etc.): 300-350 in the Vologda Oblast, 200-250 students in the Arkhangelsk Oblast, and 150-200 students in the Pskov Oblast. These numbers do not include those enrolled in continuing education programs for professionals. At least one university, Arkhangelsk State Technical University, has a student exchange program (with Germany) in which efficient design is covered, although the exchanges are very limited in size. In addition to the existing educational facilities, officials are planning to establish a large new university, Lomonosov Northern State University, in Arkhangelsk in 2010-2011. This university will be responsible for training of specialists in the areas of design, construction, and maintenance, and it will also emphasize research and development.


Currently, students in post-secondary educational institutions learn about energy efficiency in subjects that are federally mandated as part of their curriculum (e.g. “architectural physics” for architects, designers and restorers) and through components established by their universities (e.g. “building physics” for students specializing in industrial and civil architecture or urban economics and building). For other specialties (electrical engineering, heating engineering, water supply, etc.), energy efficiency is included in some individual sections of the disciplines studied.


In addition to students, all of the participating oblasts have a group of active building design professionals (architects, engineers, etc.) who work in design institutes and smaller studios. In each oblast, there are 3-4 large building design groups (of 300-400 professionals) that handle large-scale developments and 150-200 smaller studios with 10-15 professionals.  Within these organizations, there are groups that cover energy efficiency. Building inspectors constitute another target group for training and outreach. The majority of inspectors (employees of the regional offices of the State Housing Inspectorate) have post-secondary vocational education in the area of industrial and civil architecture. This specialty is the most widespread in the buildings sector. Other professional target groups include energy efficiency auditors, most of whom have a university education and have specialized in either “heat and gas supply and ventilation” or “energy supply,” and energy efficiency managers (deputy managers of a firm), most of whom have a university degree in heat and gas supply and ventilation or in energy supply.


Options for continuing education for these professionals and others include the following: (1) retraining courses (from 8 to 72 hours); (2) professional retraining that gives the opportunity to choose another profession in the presence of higher education (500 hours); (3) professional retraining that helps to get one more higher education (1200 hours). The first type of retraining is regulated by the legislation of the Russian Federation. However, the others are also very important, as research indicates that only 20% of graduates work in a field that corresponds to their academic degree.


A final target group is formed by the leading institutions in the field of building design and engineering, such as the Scientific-Research Institute of Construction Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow); Nizhniy Novgorod State University, Chelyabinsk State University, and Tomsk State University.  The project will exchange findings and “best practice” with these institutions and may collaborate on training and distance learning initiatives.


Summary of Activities: Component 2 of the proposed project will establish a means of disseminating new technologies in design and maintenance of energy efficient buildings and housing networks. In so doing, this component will also target current practicing architects, engineers, planners, and other target groups. In particular, the project will:  (a) develop recommendations and programmes for professional education and training on energy efficiency in construction and building maintenance; (b) integrate energy efficiency units into the curricula of provincial Universities and technical schools; and (c) establish an interregional network of vocational training centers.


Specific outputs in this component will include the following:


2.1. Capacity building and professional training modules


2.1.a.  Development and introduction of a module for primary school education in household energy-saving measures presented in an entertaining format for selected primary schools in the Vologda Oblast.


2.1.b.  Development and introduction of an elective module in industrial and household energy efficiency for comprehensive secondary schools. The target audience includes selected comprehensive schools in the Vologda Oblast, preferably in close proximity to participating primary schools.


2.1.c. Development and introduction of an elective module to provide knowledge about energy efficiency to students receiving vocational training in fields related to construction and buildings as well as facilities maintenance and engineering. Participating institutions will be selected from vocational schools in the Vologda Oblast.


2.1.d.  Development and introduction of an elective module for training specialists in professional education programs and providing them with professional skills in the field of energy efficiency (for specialties connected with design, engineering, and construction as well as facilities maintenance and engineering) and for training students in teacher training colleges who are studying to become preschool and comprehensive school teachers. Educational institutions will be chosen from vocational schools and teacher training colleges in the Vologda Oblast.


2.1.e.  Development and introduction of training modules on energy efficiency for students in post-secondary educational institutions.


Furthermore, VSTU will use the modules as the basis for developing curricula and courses of study related to energy efficiency.  It will also organize an inter-regional professional education and distance learning network. VSTU’s current departments and the professional education network should allow it to train the following numbers of students and professionals[1] in the area of energy efficiency covering the three participating oblasts over the project lifetime:

Number of Trainees – Students (by academic discipline):

Architecture:                                                                                                 100 people

Industrial and civil engineering:                                                                    700-750 people

Heat- and gas supply and ventilation:                                                          100-120 people

Power supply:                                                                                               400-500 people

Water supply and drainage:                                                                         200-250 people

Other specialties:                                                                                          300-400 people

Number of Trainees -- Working Specialists (by job):

Housing and communal services and heat supply workers, company managers:            2500-3000 people

Building workers:                                                                                                      500-600 people

Government officials (municipal administration):                                                    100-200 people

Other categories:                                                                                          300-400 people


2.1.f.  Development and introduction of a training module on scientific research, modeling, technologies, databases and computer programs in the field of energy efficiency and energy savings.


2.2. Energy efficiency curriculum in territorial universities and technical colleges


2.2.a. Implementation of a detailed overview of faculties in each educational institution in the three oblasts that can introduce programs, disciplines, and courses on energy efficiency with at least one institution per oblast and in addition one institution in St Petersburg. The following table outlines the institutions in the North West Federal Region (in each oblast) which could participate in the project and introduce courses on energy efficiency.


Educational Institutions in North West Russia that could benefit from an energy efficiency curriculum

Name of Institution

Name of Faculty


Vologda State Technical University (VSTU)

Faculty of Construction and Engineering; Faculty of Power Engineering


Arkhangelsk State Technical University

Construction Faculty


Pskov Polytechnical Institute

Engineering and Construction Faculty


Lomonosov Northern State University (to be established)

To be determined


St. Petersburg State Polytechnical University

Power Engineering

St. Petersburg

Novgorod State University

Polytechnical Institute (architecture, construction, civil engineering, and urban planning)


Murmansk State Technical University

Polytechnical Faculty (Energy and Transport Department)



The overview will include an assessment of faculty capacity and the geographic distribution of these institutions in order to  strengthen ties between different institutions and provide effective career guidance and cohesive specialist training in energy efficiency.


2.2.b. Strengthening the scientific and technical base of a university or universities in the North West Federal Region to support the development of leading educational institutions in the sphere of energy efficiency for the region.  This component will include conduct a tender for facilities such as laboratories for building heating systems and modern thermal insulation.


2.2.c. Developing effective models and “know-how” in energy efficiency.

  • An investigation of the existing system of tariff-setting from the standpoint of energy efficiency in the North West Region and proposals for tariff-setting that will provide incentives to use energy more efficiently.
  • Conducting sociological studies in the Vologda Oblast on the attitude of authorities towards energy-efficient buildings and on public opinion about energy efficiency.
  • Realization of the pilot project  in 3 selected educational institutions (1 in each participating oblast) which include pilot energy-efficiency activities in each project,
  • Utilization and adaptation of existing software to support energy efficiency computation in secondary vocational and higher vocational educational institutions. The software selected should also allow for the development of approximate business plans for enterprises relating to energy efficiency investments. Preliminary research indicates that this software could be used in 120–600 institutions, with an optimal distribution to approximately 100 institutions in North West Russia and in other parts of the Russian Federation.
  • Development of the hardware necessary to assess energy efficiency of electric drives in building management systems.
  • Development and implementation of methods to determine the optimum performance of power supply lines to buildings with the objective of creating an algorithm for managing of indoor energy resources and minimizing surges.
  • Development of energy saving technologies and house-building under natural conditions of the north on the basis of know-how (invention and patenting)
  • Development of measures for organization of road traffic in the cities of the region in order to reduce vehicle emissions.
  • Development of energy-saving technologies for consumers such as special operating modes for electrical appliances, regulated speed drives for equipment, non-invasive start controls, programmable devices for managing power demand, modernization and optimization of a distributive low-voltage network, and the use of advanced methods to determine installed capacity and operating modes of manufacturing equipment.


2.2.d.  Compilation and distribution of educational kits[2] on the topics of “Reducing atmospheric emissions with energy-saving buildings” and “Trends in energy-efficient generation, transmission, and consumption” and corresponding methodological documents that can be integrated into the following courses of study: post-secondary vocational education and electives (industrial and civil building, municipal building and services, heat- and gas supply and ventilation, power supply, water supply, architecture), general post-secondary technical training; post-secondary education with economic training, teacher training for primary/secondary vocational education, and teacher training teachers of preschool, primary, and secondary comprehensive schools.  Course materials and textbooks will be developed and/or adapted to these groups, and a textbook on energy efficiency will be introduced for teaching younger and older primary school pupils.  The distribution audience for the kit is ranges from 200 to 3000 institutions, and preliminary studies indicate that a distribution target of 600 (including North West Russia and several other regions in the Russian Federation) would be optimal.


2.3. Inter-regional professional training center


2.3.a.  Establishment of an inter-regional professional development and staff re-training center at one  university in each of the three pilot oblasts.  The center will conduct the following co-financed activities:

  • studying the experiences of similar centers in other regions
  • providing energy audits for industrial, residential, and public facilities using a mobile thermal imaging system
  • monitoring greenhouse gas emissions
  • developing educational kits (see above description) on energy efficiency in buildings, energy-saving technologies, and energy auditing and offering refresher courses and distance learning courses in these areas
  • developing programs and courses on energy efficiency for teachers in schools in the region. Information about the greenhouse effect and economical measures for environmental protection should be included in academic disciplines such as physics (2 hours) and economics (6 hours)
  • conducting seminars on the economic of energy resources for homeowners. Participants will be provided with heat and electricity meters, switches, heat supply valves, etc.
  • conducting one-day seminars on alternative energy sources and biofuels
  • conducting regular seminars for energy managers
  • research and development
  • developing some commercial activity based mostly on computer technologies


2.3.b.  Establishment of branches of an Inter-regional professional Training Center across the North West Federal Region.


2.3.c.   Use of the professional training centers to provide training on energy-efficient building code compliance, including design techniques and efficient technologies that can be used to meet code requirements for building envelopes.  This training will be provided to practicing architects, construction engineers, and building code inspectors in each of the three participating regions.


2.4. Distance learning and dissemination system


2.4.a.   Development of training units related to energy efficiency for use in the inter-regional professional training center and in the Center for Distance Learning (through both classroom based and e-learning).  The project will develop a total of 22 training units that will range from 4 to 10 classroom hours. These units will train a projected total of 1375 specialists who are seeking to enhance their qualifications and who will obtain specialized knowledge about energy efficiency in the process.  The specialists will be enrolled in re-training and professional education programs ranging from 72 hours of instruction to more than 500 hours of instruction.

2.4.b.   Tendering for and implementation of an internet-based distance learning program (e-learning) to incorporate the training units developed, including the development a business model for the program for providing professional training.


2.5. Inter-regional exchanges of lessons and best practices; replication programme.  These activities will include materials from all three project components, allowing for a coordinated approach to managing the knowledge and materials produced by various project activities. 

2.5.a.   Develop dissemination strategy for all materials produced under the program. This strategy must cover the ongoing distribution of information and materials 1) to the project team; 2) to the teams in all three participating oblasts; 3) to all territories in the NW Federal District, particularly to their administrations and to their universities; 4) to key professional, academic, and government organizations across the Russian Federation; 5) internationally; 6) to other projects in the GEF framework programme on energy efficiency in the Russian Federation; and 7) to other projects in the UNDP Global Framework on Low-Carbon Buildings. University networks of the Russian Ministry of Education will be engaged for the replication activities to build upon the lessons and results of the completed UNDP/GEF project on the energy efficiency in educational sector (2006).


2.5.b.   Identify target groups for outreach.


2.5.c.   Produce and distribute project lessons/practices materials.


2.5.d.   Participate in at least one national and/or international meeting annually to disseminate project results and to keep abreast with best current practice.


2.5.e.   Develop replication strategy for project as a whole


2.5.f.    Identify replication partners and sign MOUs or other documentation with partners.

[1] When the distance learning network is organized, the programs will be able to reach even more professionals.


[2] Each kit contains a curriculum, a series of lecture outlines, student examinations, full-text exercise books and documents, links to useful Internet web sites, and a glossary. Nine textbooks will be included in the kit on topics ranging from district heating to renewable energy.